If you’ve struggled with chronic insomnia for years, even if you have some reliable management strategies, you may occasionally find yourself talking about insomnia with people whose looks and responses suggest it can’t be such a big deal.
“Aren’t there pills for that?”
“My doctor says that’s self-inflicted. You just THINK you can’t sleep.”
Here’s some new research that shows why persistent insomnia is a serious problem deserving of concern and treatment.
Benefits of Sleep
First, though, let’s review the central role sleep plays in maintaining well-being. In the past, people thought that nothing much happened during sleep and that the human brain essentially shut down at night. How wrong that notion was!
Many critical functions occur during sleep. Sleep enables the shoring up of the immune system and the repair of injuries. During sleep, memories are consolidated and brain waste is pruned. Negative emotion is processed during REM sleep. After a full night’s sleep you awaken in a more positive mood. During sleep energy is conserved. In the morning you awaken feeling rested and restored, and your brain is primed to learn and retain new information.
When sleep is disrupted, whatever the reason, the critical functions that take place during sleep may be compromised. In the case of chronic insomnia, common symptoms during the daytime—tiredness and lack of stamina; moodiness; and impaired attention, concentration, and memory—are suggestive of compromise. They cut down on the quality of our day-to-day lives.
Effects of Persistent Insomnia Over Time
Chronic insomnia also has several more insidious effects.
It increases the odds of our developing depression and anxiety. A new meta-analysis of studies on insomnia as predictor of mental illness has found that chronic insomnia makes us nearly 3 times as likely to develop major depressive disorder and over 3 times as likely to develop an anxiety disorder as people without insomnia.
Insomnia and Chronic Pain
Insomnia intensifies and increases susceptibility to pain. Past research has suggested that the relationship between insomnia and pain is bidirectional, with painful conditions interfering with sleep and sleep disturbances worsening painful conditions. But recent longitudinal studies (studies involving repeated observations over time) suggest that more often it’s insomnia symptoms that predispose us to chronic pain or to the worsening of painful conditions.
Insomnia and Heart Disease
Insomnia, especially when accompanied by objectively measured short sleep duration (less than 6 hours), makes us more susceptible to heart, or cardiovascular, disease (CVD). Meta-analyses have found that people with insomnia are between 33% and 45% more likely to develop and/or die of CVD than people without insomnia.
A new study of sleep duration and atherosclerosis (plaque formation in arteries) has found that short sleepers are 27% more susceptible to atherosclerosis than people who sleep 7 to 8 hours a night, and those whose sleep is highly fragmented are at even greater risk (34%) for plaque build-up.
A disorder that has so many negative effects on quality of life and long-term health cannot be dismissed as a minor annoyance. It’s important to get treatment for insomnia as soon as possible, with cognitive behavioral therapy or, in cases that don’t respond to CBT, medication.
Talking About Things We Know
Despite what you might infer from the fact that I blog about insomnia, I don’t go around seeking opportunities to talk about the problem in my everyday life. Sleep disorders now get quite a bit of attention in popular media, but most of us know the topic has the appeal of moldy leftovers for the good sleepers of the world — and they are in the majority.
Occasionally, though, conversations turn to talk about sleep, at a party or a meeting or anywhere in casual conversation. And who better than us to raise people’s awareness about the problem of insomnia since we’re the ones with all the experience?
If you’ve talked about insomnia with your family, friends, or acquaintances, what has been their reaction?