Insomnia is not always treatable by primary care providersIt’s not always easy to find help for insomnia. Several people I interviewed for “The Savvy Insomniac” reported that their primary care doctors didn’t seem to take the complaint seriously or prescribed treatments that didn’t work.

I thought the situation must have changed since persistent insomnia is now known to be associated with health problems down the line. But a recent report on the Veterans Affairs (VA) health system shows that insomnia is still overlooked and undertreated by many primary care providers.

Here’s what you may find—and what you deserve—when you talk to your doctor about sleep.

Insomnia Addressed in Primary Care

Investigators surveyed 51 primary care providers (PCPs) in the VA system as to their perceptions and treatment of insomnia. About 80% of the respondents said they felt insomnia was as important as other health problems. Yet they tended to underestimate its prevalence and often failed to document its presence.

Other research has shown that the prevalence of poor sleep quality among veterans is extremely high: over 70% in veterans without mental illness and even higher in veterans with a mental health diagnosis. Yet most PCPs surveyed estimated that only 20% to 39% of their patients experienced insomnia symptoms. When insomnia emerged as a problem, only 53% said they regularly entered it into their patients’ medical records.

Insomnia Conceived Of as Secondary Problem

Scientists now have plenty of evidence that insomnia is a disorder in its own right—regardless of whether it occurs alone or together with another disorder. Yet many PCPs seemed to view it as merely a symptom or a condition secondary to another disorder.

All of the PCPs endorsed the belief that when insomnia occurs together with a health problem such as depression and PTSD, successful treatment of the depression or PTSD will eradicate the trouble sleeping. Current scientific evidence does not support this belief.

Insomnia Treated With Sleep Hygiene

The first-line insomnia treatment recommended by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and other professional organizations is cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). CBT-I is available at VA facilities.

Even so, the insomnia treatment PCPs most often recommended to their patients was counseling on good sleep hygiene. But sleep hygiene doesn’t work as a stand-alone treatment for insomnia. What’s more, it may make the prospect of CBT-I less palatable, given that some CBT guidelines call for behavioral changes that resemble the rules of good sleep hygiene.

Still Getting It Wrong

It seems like primary care doctors are just as outdated in their conception and treatment of insomnia as they were 10 and 20 years ago. I’m not alone in voicing this concern. Here’s how Michael Grandner and Subhajit Chakravorty titled their commentary on the survey results: “Insomnia in Primary Care: Misreported, Mishandled, and Just Plain Missed.”

There’s no ambiguity here.

Help You Deserve From Your Doctor

Your PCP may be responsive to your complaint of insomnia and current in his or her knowledge of how to diagnose and treat the condition. If so, well and good.

But your doctor may not be quite so on the ball when it comes to dealing with trouble sleeping. Don’t let that deter you from seeking help for insomnia elsewhere. A good doctor will:

  1. Respond to concerns about insomnia as attentively as he or she would to concerns about double vision or shortness of breath. Insomnia can be debilitating, and chronic insomnia can result in changes that compromise health and quality of life. A doctor who dismisses it as trivial or hands you the rules for good sleep hygiene before waving you out the door is not the right doctor.
  2. Ask questions about the duration, frequency, and severity of your problem, and possible underlying conditions. This type of inquiry is crucial to arriving at an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Doctors who don’t have the time or knowledge to ask these questions should refer you to someone who does.
  3. Discuss treatment options that are research based and individualized. CBT-I may require referral to a specialist, yet there may be no specialist certified in behavioral sleep medicine practicing in the area. Likewise, a prescription for sleeping pills is useless to a patient who has no intention of filling it. Treatment discussions should be dialogs, and doctors should encourage patient participation.

This is the kind of response we deserve when we bring up the topic of insomnia with PCPs.

But it may not be the kind of response we get. How has your doctor reacted when you’ve mentioned trouble sleeping? (If you found this post helpful, please like and share on social media. Thanks!)

Posted by Lois Maharg, The Savvy Insomniac

Lois Maharg has worked with language for many years. She taught ESL, coauthored two textbooks, and then became a reporter, writing about health, education, government, Latino affairs, and food. Her lifelong struggle with insomnia and interest in investigative reporting motivated her to write a book, The Savvy Insomniac: A Personal Journey through Science to Better Sleep. She now freelances as an editor and copy writer at On the Mark Editing.


  1. It’s SO discouraging that this is still the case, especially with good books pointing the problem out.



    1. Hi Eric,

      This study does suggest that primary care doctors may not be current in their understanding and treatment of insomnia. But I don’t know how representative a survey with only 51 respondents can be of PCPs in general. Even if several have taken advantage of continuing education courses to stay current in the field of sleep medicine, though, I thought it might be helpful to remind readers of the kind of help they should expect to find when they talk about insomnia with their doctors.



  2. Hi Lois,

    Thank you so much for writing this! I am a resident psychiatrist who went to medical school from 2010-2015, and I can confirm that the predominant teaching still revolves around sleep hygiene. Sadly, this leads PCPs to prescribe way too many sleep medications. (I’m not by any means opposed to sleep medications, but I severely limit them in chronic insomnia until a patient has failed a strong trial of CBT.) Unfortunately, the predominant education most medical students still get is around sleep hygiene, and so I work hard in my teaching to convince them not to use this technique as a monotherapy. Patient’s find it shaming and it simply doesn’t work. I wrote a brief blog post about it at

    Keep fighting the good fight!
    Jeff Clark, MD



    1. Hi Jeff,

      Thank you for taking time to confirm some of the things I’ve written about sleep hygiene. As a treatment for insomnia it has a place, but more as a side dish and certainly not the main course!

      I took a look at your blog post. I want to compliment you not just on the message you’re delivering—that as standalone treatment for insomnia, sleep hygiene doesn’t work—but also on your analysis of WHY it doesn’t work . . . and may in fact be counter-productive. Your post insightful and easy to read.

      Anyone looking for more information on this topic should click the link in the comment above.

      Occasionally—very occasionally, mainly because insomnia is not a laughing matter—I manage to post something humorous. As it happens, I wrote a lighter piece about sleep hygiene a couple years ago. Here it it:

      Thanks again for writing in, and best of luck to you in your practice.



      1. I love it! There’s nothing wrong with a little humor to get us through the challenges of life! It’s a rich, wonderful coping strategy 🙂


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