Several people I interviewed for The Savvy Insomniac blamed their insomnia on stress at work. A trial lawyer attributed his nighttime wake-ups to “mostly job related stress.” A 52-year-old woman on Social Security disability saw her insomnia as resulting from 14 years of shift work as a dispatcher with emergency services.
Work can interfere with sleep in many ways, including shortening sleep duration. The CDC has just released a report on the categories of work most likely to shorten people’s sleep. Here’s what they are and how they may relate to chronic insomnia.
Occupations Associated With Short Sleep
The findings are based on surveys conducted on working adults in 2013 and 2014. By telephone, workers answered questions about the kind of work they did and how much sleep they normally got in 24-hour period. In all, the CDC analyzed the responses of nearly 180,000 people. The data show a high percentage of workers in these five broad categories typically slept less than 7 hours a night:
- Production (printing workers, plant and system operators, supervisors, and production workers), about 43%
- Healthcare Support (nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides), about 40%
- Healthcare Practitioners and Technical (health technologists and technicians, health diagnosing and treating practitioners), about 40%
- Food Preparation and Food-Related (supervisors, food preparation and serving workers, cooks), about 40%
- Protective Service (fire fighting and prevention workers, law enforcement officers), about 39%
Occupations Involving Shift Work
The jobs in all five categories often involve shift work. Round-the-clock operations in hospitals, factories, restaurants, and police and fire departments make it necessary for some employees to work at times when we’re normally at rest. In other work situations employees regularly rotate from one shift to the next.
Shift work is known to interfere with sleep, contributing to shortened sleep and excessive sleepiness. It disrupts circadian rhythms and has a negative effect on health, contributing to a rise in certain cancers, obesity, and impaired glucose tolerance. It also increases the risk of injury.
Could Shift Work or Work-Related Short Sleep Lead to Chronic Insomnia?
Lynda, the retired dispatcher on disability, felt there was a direct link between her insomnia and her work in emergency services. Day jobs she’d held previously gave her “no trouble sleeping at night.” But the dispatch job was different:
I really do believe that the shift work was a major contribution to my sleeping problems. I base this on comparisons with my coworkers. I don’t know any policeman, fireman, or dispatcher who didn’t have trouble sleeping while swinging shifts on a regular basis. I loved this line of work because it was always rewarding to be able to help someone, or be responsible for saving someone’s life. Sometimes, depending on the size of the catastrophe, it could be very intense. You could feel the adrenaline pumping. . . . It just gave you a great feeling knowing that YOU were the one who made a difference. I guess that would explain why I couldn’t sleep after coming off of working something major. Sleep was easier to give up than the job.
How It Could Happen
The neurocognitive model of insomnia suggests how chronic insomnia might develop from work-related stress and short sleep. In fact any stressful situation can trigger acute (or temporary) insomnia, including stress at work. But acute insomnia does not necessarily become chronic. Sleep can—and, in many people, does—return to normal once the situational triggers for insomnia get resolved.
But in the five categories of jobs identified by the CDC, less-than-perfect conditions of employment may be a given when you accept the job. Want to work in emergency services? Fine. You’ll work rotating shifts.
If you find this situation stressful because it interferes with your sleep, you may be tempted to resort to measures that often make sleep worse—using alcohol to get to sleep, for example, or spending long stretches lying awake in bed.
Lying awake in bed often leads to worry and rumination, and to high-frequency brain activity during sleep onset and beyond. Eventually you wind up conditioning arousal in your body and brain. Et voilà, you’re saddled with chronic insomnia—all because you were a good citizen and willing to work around the clock.
I never had an easy time working split shifts and I avoided other jobs that might disrupt my sleep. People like Lynda are more adaptable. But . . . at what cost?
If you’ve had a job that shortened or otherwise interfered with your sleep, how did you manage the situation, and were their any long-term effects?