Every list of famous insomniacs is full of artists and actors, as well as historical giants such as Napoleon, Churchill, and Lincoln. Every person on the list is of European descent, so you might get the idea that the genetic roots of the affliction lie across the Atlantic.
But research on insomnia is now coming out of the East, suggesting that insomnia is a phenomenon in Asian cultures too. Who knew?
Dr. Li Zhisui, private physician of Mao Zedong, knew all about Mao’s struggle with sleep and, though the doctor shared his story in The Private Life of Chairman Mao, Mao has yet to be mentioned in any list of famous insomniacs I’ve seen. But his trouble sleeping could be counted among the worst on record, if Li’s portrait is accurate.
All Wound Up
Mao actually suffered from two types of insomnia, according to Li. One was the acute insomnia typically associated with stress. Mao got all wound up when he had to get up early to preside over crowds and speak at big celebrations.
“Often he would get no sleep at all the night before the festivities,” Li writes. “He was exhilarated by the crowds and their adulation, and his energy always carried him through the event, but he often caught cold afterward. Sometimes the cold would become bronchitis, and he would be miserable for weeks.”
An Abnormal Body Clock
Mao’s other sleep problem sounds even more debilitating: an erratic biological clock.
“His body refused to be set to the 24-hour day,” said Li. “He stayed awake longer than others, and much of his activity took place at night. If he went to bed one day at midnight, the next night he might not sleep until 3 in the morning, and the day after that he would not sleep until 6. His waking hours grew longer and longer until he would stay awake for 24, or even 36 or 48, hours at a stretch. Then he could sleep 10 or 12 hours continuously, and no amount of noise or commotion would wake him.”
Today, Mao might be diagnosed with a circadian rhythm disorder. “Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder,” where the body clock cycles in periods longer than 24 hours, is uncommon except in people who are blind, whose internal clocks do not receive input from sunlight and do not get reset to a 24-hour day.
The problem with Mao’s biological clock may have been exacerbated by his unusual lifestyle. He spent lots of time holed up in his bedroom, where thick curtains blocked out the sunlight. But Li suspects Mao’s problem was partly organic, and that “possibly his biological clock had always been askew.”
How Insomnia Affected His Habits
People with sleep problems of this magnitude generally have a hard time getting ahead. Tardiness, absence, and poor performance get in the way of holding on to jobs. But as Chairman of the Communist Party, Mao was the drummer whose beat the others had to march to. He often called meetings at 3 a.m. Sometimes he ordered his whole staff awakened in the wee hours to prepare for a 4 a.m. departure by train.
You might think being able to call the shots would make these sleep problems easier to bear, but Mao’s story suggests otherwise. He tried swimming, dancing, and walking to wear himself out, and he took up to 4 times the recommended dosage of powerful sleeping pills. But often, Li said, nothing worked.
Mao holds the world record for perpetrating genocide, with the deaths attributable to his policies numbering in the tens of millions. But surely he also deserves a place on the list of Most Famous Insomniacs, a more onerous but less odious distinction. I rest my case.